In order to understand Lymphoma, the first step is to understand Cancer. In order to understand Cancer, the first step is to understand the development of the human fetus from a single cellular structure to a multiple one. The formation of zygote in its initial stage multiplies to become a fetus in order to form various organs for a healthy body. By the time a human child is ready to take birth, the human contains over 200 different types of cells. Throughout the lifespan of a human being these cells keep on multiplying and replacing older cells to support growth and development of the human body. The division of cells and death of cells are a normal process which is controlled by chemical signals. The body balances the number of cells produced and deaths of cells according to its requirements. In fact, in a minute 100 millions cells die and are replaced by new cells in the human body.

What is Cancer?

When the balance of production and deaths of cells becomes unstable, it can lead to a change in the DNA of cells that causes mutation. Mutations can create abnormal cells that stop responding to control signals. Oftentimes, they also remain hidden from the body’s immune system. These cells might:

  • Start dividing when they should not.
  • Carry on dividing when they should stop.
  • Stay alive when they should die.

This forms a population of cells that divide faster than they die, leading to an uncontrolled build-up of abnormal cells. Once cancer develops, the abnormal cells might stop the body from making normal, healthy cells. This can prevent organs from working properly. The abnormal cells might spread to other parts of the body and start growing there too. Cancer also uses up the energy and nutrients that the body needs.

There are many different types of cancer depending on what type of cell became abnormal. Different types of cancer can have different effects, depending on where the cancer is and how fast it is growing.

What is Lymphoma?

There are different types of blood cancers:-

  1. Leukemia is a blood cancer caused by a rise in the number of white blood cells in your body. Those white blood cells crowd out the red blood cells and platelets that your body needs to be healthy. The extra white blood cells don’t work right.
  2. Myeloma is a cancer that forms in a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. Plasma cells help you fight infections by making antibodies that recognize and attack germs. Multiple Myeloma causes cancer cells to accumulate in the bone marrow, where they crowd out healthy blood cells.
  3. Lymphoma is cancer that begins in infection-fighting cells of the immune system, called lymphocytes. These cells are in the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, bone marrow, and other parts of the body. When you have lymphoma, lymphocytes change and grow out of control.

There are two main types of lymphoma:

  • Non-Hodgkin: Most people with lymphoma have this type.
  • Hodgkin:- it is cancer of the lymphatic system and may spread beyond it. It occurs when lymphocyte cells develop genetic mutation. The mutated cells multiply rapidly and can crowd out normal healthy cells from the lymphatic system.

Non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphoma involve different types of lymphocyte cells. Every type of lymphoma grows at a different rate and responds differently to treatment.

Lymphoma is very treatable, and the outlook can vary depending on the type of lymphoma and its stage. Your doctor can help you find the right treatment for your type and stage of the illness.

Lymphoma is different from leukemia. Each of these cancers starts in a different type of cell.

Causes of Lymphoma

There are no certain causes for lymphoma cancer. However people could be more at risk if they:-

  • Are in 60s or older for non-Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Are between 15 and 40 or older than 55 for Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Are male, although certain subtypes may be more common in females
  • Have a weak immune system from HIV/AIDS, an organ transplant, or because you were born with an immune disease
  • Have an immune system disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren’s syndrome, lupus, or celiac disease
  • Have been infected with a virus such as Epstein-Barr, hepatitis C, or human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (HTLV-1)
  • Have a close relative who had lymphoma
  • Were exposed to benzene or chemicals that kill bugs and weeds
  • Were treated for Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the past
  • Were treated for cancer with radiation
Leukemia

Multiple myeloma is a cancer that forms in a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. Plasma cells help you fight infections by making antibodies that recognize and attack germs. Multiple myeloma causes cancer cells to accumulate in the bone marrow, where they crowd out healthy blood cells. Rather than produce helpful antibodies, the cancer cells produce abnormal proteins that can cause complications. Treatment for multiple myeloma isn’t always necessary for people who aren’t experiencing any signs or symptoms. For people with multiple myeloma who require treatment, a number of treatments are available to help control the disease.

Myeloma

Multiple myeloma is a cancer that forms in a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. Plasma cells help you fight infections by making antibodies that recognize and attack germs. Multiple myeloma causes cancer cells to accumulate in the bone marrow, where they crowd out healthy blood cells. Rather than produce helpful antibodies, the cancer cells produce abnormal proteins that can cause complications. Treatment for multiple myeloma isn’t always necessary for people who aren’t experiencing any signs or symptoms. For people with multiple myeloma who require treatment, a number of treatments are available to help control the disease.

Lymphoma

The lymph system is a series of lymph nodes and vessels that move lymph fluid through the body. Lymph fluids contain infection-fighting white blood cells. Lymph nodes act as filters, capturing and destroying bacteria and viruses to prevent infection from spreading. While the lymph system typically protects your body, lymph cells called lymphocytes can become cancerous. The names for cancers that occur in the lymph system are lymphomas.Doctors classify more than 70 cancer types as lymphomas. Lymphomas can affect any portion of the lymphatic system, including: bone marrow, thymus, spleen,, tonsils, lymph nodes